Parts Of A Persuasive Speech

A persuasive speech is a speech written and delivered to convince people of the speaker's viewpoint. Greed is defined as the desire to have more of something than you. Here your rationale, your argument, is most important. The next step is to learn how to write a persuasive essay and convince your teachers that your paper deserves a good grade. Persuasive Speech Persuasive speeches are there to persuade the audience that an opinion expressed by the speaker is the right one. The Use of Repetition in Your Speech The use of examples, stories and repetition bring your speech to life and make it even more enjoyable for your audience. This is the most important part of your speech. by Ron Kurtus (2 March 2013) Every speech consists of three major parts. Asked in Informative Speech, Persuasive Speech Asked in Speech Writing,. Another persuasive word to work into your copy is imagine – asking your readers to imagine their desired outcome is a safe alternative to asking them to take action. It also uses facts to support their perspective towards this problem. Restate the thesis 2. Its benefit to humans have not been proven and most benefits derived from the experiments could be produced by other means. 42 is Monday. The regular price for this camera is $1199, but I have found it on sale for only $999. Speech : Hook : Have you ever heard an animal cry in pain? Intro : 100 million animals are burnt, crippled, poisoned and abused each year in the U. Unido standards for business plan. In addition to providing meaningful listening, speaking and writing practice, debate is also highly effective for developing argumentation skills for persuasive speech and writing. Make an Order and get the Best Persuasive Speeches. pdf), Text File (. In a follow-up move, the organization created carbonated yogurt so that they can make yogurt more tasty. Persuasive speech is a speech dedicated to some focused topic ideas where a student has a stand and persuades listeners to accept this stand as well. It is on pp. Racism Persuasive Speech. Time Management during the Persuasive Unit Choose a topic ASAP. Faculty considering a persuasive speech as a class assignment should use a persuasive speech evaluation form for the assignment. Then, you will uphold the concerned problem followed a solution on your part. Most of all, we are proud of our dedicated team, who has both the creativity and understanding of our clients' needs. For this class we will examine two models of communication that come from the Action Science/Inquiry tradition. There is a certain general format that all persuasive speeches follow. I allow students to bring a total of five note cards to the podium on speech day. Unlike other liquids, water has amazing properties. speech: Persuasive speech on topic of choice (1 test grade) Students will present the Introduction for a Persuasive Speech on the topic of their choice. Persuasive Speech Parts Explained PERSUASIVE OUTLINE Begin with an Attention Step that is an. Listen to recordings of speeches online on history. The speech is arranged in such a way as to hopefully cause the audience to accept all or part of the expressed view. In conclusion, animal testing should not be allowed as it causes suffering to the subjects. Parts of a Persuasive Speech 1. There are many elements that go into a successful persuasive speech. A speech to persuade presents an attention statement, an introduction, the body of the speech with main points and supporting information, a conclusion, and a residual message. Writing a speech is vastly different than writing a paper. Notice that the purpose of a persuasive speech is similar to the purpose for writing an argumentative or persuasive essay. In role as members of a school health club in Sierra Leone, learners will consolidate their learning about persuasive argument by giving a speech to persuade members of a community to invest in building pit latrines and water pumps. Social bullying is being ignored, having rumours spread about you, or telling lies about you. The goal is to help the listeners to accept the idea, attitude, or action being presented by the speaker. Reason to Remember. You offer proof to. This could be virtually anything - voting, organ donation, recycling, and so on. On debate days, a representative from the selected "Literary Society" will have to create and deliver a 5-10 minute persuasive speech arguing his/her society's assigned position in the debate. Even if you're not formally presenting persuasive speeches, it's important to know how to present your ideas in such a manner. It can be pretty frustrating for those people who are struggling with grades, or for those whose. 2g: Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. A clear step-by step process of a persuasive essay Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. You are not going to restate the whole thesis. How to Write an Outline for a Persuasive Speech Giving persuasive speeches isn't just for high school and college composition classes. When used properly, a transition word can serve as a bridge that takes the readers from one idea to another, and will help improve the overall coherence of the write-up. Why There Must Be Qualification Tests for Voting In western democratic societies, people have gotten used to almost absolute freedom: of speech, consciousness, self-expression, gender roles, and so on. One of the most important parts of persuasive essays or speeches is to convince and persuade the people about what you mean to say. Examples of persuasive speech essays - Many of our scientific knowledge and cultural mechanisms that effectively meets the required balance between the consumer and the taboos of the second of observation and accumulation of facts, mark all dates on time while waiting for the design as an education in the cultural or social practice accounting for percent of their potential as a web of relations between data and evidence together, showing why the more trivially obvious they are produced. Being persuasive is the key to successful sales. Persuasive Essay The Conclusion Paragraph The First Part: The Second Part: The Third Part: Sample Essay There are three parts: Restate the thesis Restate your two reasons Call to Action Now Write It! Conclusion Paragraph 1. Free text to speech online app with natural voices, convert text to audio and mp3, for personal and commercial use. Not all questions are good for persuasive papers. Use facts, strong possibilities, cause and effect conclusions. similar persuasive legal documents. Film speeches are normally delivered orally and directed at an audience of three or more people, although there can. Understand the reader or the target audience. 5 Tips How To Cogitate Engaging Persuasive Speech Topics In <60 Min. We advocate you use this principal when writing your speeches from scratch or adapting one of our example speeches. It's pretty much where the. Whether you want to get people to vote, stop littering, or change their minds about an important issue, persuasive speeches are an effective way to sway an audience. Some "grabbers"; include: 1. Persuasive or argumentative essays In persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to convince others to agree with our facts, share our values, accept our argument and conclusions, and adopt our way of thinking. There’s no purer expression of that skill than the one-minute informative or persuasive speech. 709 Persuasive Speech Topics. Now is the time to get. Page 1: Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun. A persuasive speech is a kind of speech aiming to convince the audience, to persuade the listeners and make them accept the author’s point of view. Also, since it is a persuasive speech, you have to take a stand on the topic. In general, there are four parts or sections that included in persuasive speech example. Pathos (audience) – how your message appeals to the audience's emotions. Verbal Bullying is being called names, teased and put downs. What is a Persuasive Speech? Persuasive Speechesare meant to influence the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and values. Label parts of motivated sequence *The rough draft (worksheet) of the outline must also be turned in for a daily grade. If you have been assigned a persuasive speech, lucky you! This might not seem like your idea of a fun time, but getting to give a persuasive speech can actually be one of the more interesting parts of the school year. Persuasive Speech Goals. Psychology admission essay ysiac essay competition. Here your rationale, your argument, is most important. Listen to recordings of speeches online on history. Anticipated Problem: What is the major purpose of a persuasive speech? I. and leave that part of you who only follows other people's rules. Parts of the Persuasive Essay 1. Grab attention. YOU: connect speech to audience; don't depersonalize. A more persuasive analysis suggests that the threat of a sanction makes it more difficult and potentially more costly to exercise our freedom of speech. We will write a custom essay sample on. by Ron Kurtus (2 March 2013) Every speech consists of three major parts. Easy persuasive speech topics: read 30 really simple issues Here they come - the most fantastic examples of a speech topic. Choose the correct part of speech for the underlined word in each sentence. Through his speeches, he galvanized Athenians to undertake an enormous public works project that created hundreds of temples, including the Pantheon. It states how to make a draft and the points to include, how to organize and present the final introduction with multiple example and illustrations. This also adds 'thoughtfulness' to what is being said. CUSTOM SPEECHES. Parts of Speech Activities There are eight parts of speech: nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, and articles. Persuasive speeches Keep in mind that these essays are for inspiration only and we don’t recommend using them for your college assignments. SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE (Motivated Sequence) by: Erin Solomon (Fall 1998) Topic: Organ Donation Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to donate their organs and tissues when they die and to act upon their decision to donate. Persuasive Speech: Everyone Should Use a Seat Belt While in a Car. 2008 Core Knowledge® National Conference, 4th Grade, Plead Your Case, Sojourner and Patrick! The Art of Persuasive Speech 2 8. In business, persuasion is a process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude or behaviour toward some event, idea, object, or other person(s), by using written, spoken words or visual tools to convey information, feelings, or. 22 Ways On How To Start A Persuasive Speech If you want to convince your audience to take action, you better know how to start a persuasive speech, or else you will loose right at the start. Let's look at each element briefly. Then there are the main three parts of a persuasive essay. A memo to your team is likely to be different in tone from a memo to the board of directors. persuasive speech on single parents If you do use any part of our sample assignments, please remember to reference Uni Assignment. Below, I break the speech down into specific parts so you can use the format as a sample inspirational speech for your own charity event. Also, the E-Module format is more participatory, making the learner a part of the learning process. Please let us know (in the comments box below) which topic you think is the best one. During the persuasive speech I had a solid stance, and I only flipped my hair once. Nouns name people, animals, places, things, or ideas. The purpose of the persuasive group assignment is to present a credible and convincing argument in support of a change or continuation in an area of policy through various perspectives or points of view on a controversial topic. Persuasive Speech: The Human Condition - Greed it can lead to an insatiable greed on our part. This camera has a remote microphone jack and a 120GB hard drive. Layout speech – layout speeches tend to be less-formal, off-the-cuff presentations to individuals or smaller groups. Thesis statement identifies topic and encompasses/previews main points. This is our final project for the horror unit and we will work on it all week. • Use and apply the principles and model of human communication (1. Persuasive text is a form of writing which encourages the reader to do something. Start studying Persuasive Speech Quiz. This gives the other person space in which to consider what is said. Below you will find several speeches that I have analyzed, in whole or in part. Persuasive speech writing guide, tips on introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion on essaybasics. Parts Of A Persuasive Essay Assignments are time-bound, and lectures give strict deadlines to students when it comes to their assignments. Some famous persuasive speeches were the "I Have A Dream" speech by Martin Luther King, Junior and Jimmy Valvano's famous ESPY awards speech. Sports is the best stress reliever and reducer of obesity. Parts of Speech Activities There are eight parts of speech: nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, and articles. A good rule of thumb is 10 full run throughs before the speech itself. This is the type of essay where you try to convince the reader to adopt your position on an issue or point of view. Parts of Speech. because of bullying? And that’s in only one year! Does this sound like it’s not a big deal to you? I didn’t think so. Get instant access to over 1200 FREE interesting, intriguing and jaw dropping ideas for your persuasive speech topic. One example is the TeacherTube video of. Like the. It provides all the guidelines as well to write an impressive introduction for a persuasive essay. You must justify your opinions by establishing standards by which we can measure the issue. Persuasive Speech How to Give a Professional Persuasive Speech. On a very hot late summer's day in 1962, President Kennedy visited Rice University in Houston, Texas, and gave this speech outdoors in the football stadium. Another persuasive word to work into your copy is imagine – asking your readers to imagine their desired outcome is a safe alternative to asking them to take action. A Masterful Delivery. persuasive speech on organ donation Customer agrees to pay any local, state or federal taxes imposed or levied on or with respect to the Services, the Equipment or installation or service charges incurred with respect to the same. To complete an outstanding speech, one must begin by deciding precisely what he or she intends to talk about, to whom the message is targeted, and the ends that should be achieved. Fear of Public Speaking. It attempts to persuade a reader to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action. The commercial uses the famous speech that first introduced the problem of smoking and what it does to our health. For a successful persuasive communication the knowledge of audience—their social, economic, religious and political structures and values, is of paramount importance. The prepare part is definitely added with preservatives to make it last and it is very harmful to our health. Later in this unit you will have an opportunity to develop with your group a Service. Your speaking outline (10 points) is due in class on the day you give your speech. Like ethos and pathos the aim is to create an persuasive effect, thus the apparent is sufficient: Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question. We will try to provide more topics for persuasive speech as topics become available. Click Here! Your speech can have everyone on the edge of their seat - hanging off of every word. Parts of the Persuasive Essay 1. ELA-Literacy. ows home parts of speech sentence structure punctuation usage self-teaching units exercises Comma Use with Introductory Elements - Exercise 1 Revise the following sentences by adding commas where they are needed. First, if you are planning a persuasive speech, you should think about a topic that can engage your audience. The writer is given a test assignment and has to write a unique and original persuasive essay on a predetermined topic. These types of persuasive speeches revolve around the claims that are made in each of the speeches. As we learn in our everyday life, most topics have at. In this composition, you are advised to use up all or most of the persuasive devices to be effective. Craft a Persuasive Speech. Speeches that sound read or memorized are subject to receive a result of “fail. Persuasive speech is a speech dedicated to some focused topic ideas where a student has a stand and persuades listeners to accept this stand as well. An adjective is a part of speech that modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun, such as the way something feels, looks, sounds or tastes. Persuasive Speech - Everyone Should Learn CPR Posted by Unknown at. Thesis statement identifies topic and encompasses/previews main points. The purpose of the persuasive group assignment is to present a credible and convincing argument in support of a change or continuation in an area of policy through various perspectives or points of view on a controversial topic. Objective: I CAN describe the elements of a persuasive argument. Easy to remember. purpose, people, plans. Students demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the communication process. , Today, I will argue that… Provide a preview statement , which outlines the speech’s main points or provides direction for how you will accomplish the goal stated in the thesis statement. This persuasive speech Sample will help you to see how the Outline is used. In role as members of a school health club in Sierra Leone, learners will consolidate their learning about persuasive argument by giving a speech to persuade members of a community to invest in building pit latrines and water pumps. For example, „buy my product“, „vote for me“, „believe what I’m talking about“, and so on. A good thesis statement should capture all of these essential details in just one or two sentences. Clark suggests specific ways to do this, to reduce the unnecessary parts. If the speech of the speaker is impactful, it inspires new truths, forces the listeners to do something, and almost always pushes them to serious deeds. But you can give your message far greater impact by keeping in mind the three elements represented by the Rhetorical Triangle. To persuade my audience that capital punishment is immoral. The introduction should show mastery of the Motivated Sequence and prior. If you are looking for a particular speaker, you can jump. Understanding the parts of speech is fundamental to learning the English language. persuasive speech. In introduction persuasive work, there is no extra information: if an opinion is asked in assignment, it is briefly mentioned. Melissa Drexter, the girl who killed her baby at her prom, received 15 years in prison. Whether it involves technology, fashion, or other interests, money motivates the economy in our favour. Now, I assigned each table group to read for a particular argumentative element. Understand three common organizational patterns for persuasive speeches. Students use persuasive writing to argue logically with reasons, to present another viewpoint, 2. It can be pretty frustrating for those people who are struggling with grades, or for those whose. Persuasive Essay Outline: Cyber Bullying. Public speech – I would consider any and all of the above as being a form of public speech. This sample persuasive speech was sent in by a visitor to this website, Jimmy from Malawi, who is passionate about activism and urges others to join him. About This Quiz & Worksheet. While presentation is very important when persuading, the magic of a persuasive speech is best experienced only when the topic elicits an interest and appeals to the heart of every member in the audience. As we learn in our everyday life, most topics have at. It’s an enormous topic with many ramifications, philosophical, practical, technical and ethical. But the legend of to use it to. It provides a definition of eating disorder. Baccalaureate of Science in Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering Idaho State University Re: Submission of persuasive speech outline The speech outline has been done following the sample outline for persuasive speech in principles of speech course supplement book on page 147 and implementing the persuasive skeleton. Also, the E-Module format is more participatory, making the learner a part of the learning process. Persuasive Speech Parts Explained PERSUASIVE OUTLINE Begin with an Attention Step that is an. Vampires never die essay. org team to pick your unique sample of a speech topic. , Today, I will argue that… Provide a preview statement , which outlines the speech's main points or provides direction for how you will accomplish the goal stated in the thesis statement. Speech Analysis Background Information 1. As if you are that character, you are going to attend a hunting convention. From the Walnut Gallery competitor Moda Health Plan. SAMPLE OUTLINE FOR A PERSUASIVE SPEECH - By Tom Wingard Introduction Attention Are you getting a bit tired of that three inch spare tire around your waist? Material Are you becoming increasingly lazy, fat? Thesis/ I'd like to show you that we're all in need of exercise. PERSUASIVE OUTLINE. pdf), Text File (. One example is the TeacherTube video of. Logos refers to the logic, the words, and the reasons in your argument. They show how arguments are used to persuade and give a clear example of how we can help you if you have to give such a speech. Speaker clearly formulated and stated thesis statement during the speech introduction. A quotation. Opening statement of interest: (use one or more of the following) A rhetorical question; A startling statement; A quotation; An illustration or story; A reference to the subject; A reference to the occasion. And pick a topic for your competition, or project. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Lincoln himself, after his first debate with Douglas that year, headed off to hear another speech. A persuasive speech outline template format generally proceeds with a catchy introduction. One example is the TeacherTube video of. By doing this you will lay the foundations for a successful speech. Therefore, when it is such an integral part of our lives, students in particular are given assignments on nature or are asked to deliver a speech on nature in order to raise awareness. Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence. Buy a Persuasive Speech Written by Skilled Writers. This is one sentence that encompasses the central idea of your speech. Use of persuasive language One of the suggested topics for Part 2 of the Language A: Language and Literature guide is the 'use of persuasive language'. Your speaking outline (10 points) is due in class on the day you give your speech. Mandatory reporting in healthcare. Persuasive speech thesis statement writing is a confusing task for many students. The writer is given a test assignment and has to write a unique and original persuasive essay on a predetermined topic. Top 25 political speeches of all time: 25-13 As Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama prepares to speak next to Berlin’s Victory column, a team of Telegraph writers has compiled what we. Main Points: I. This also adds 'thoughtfulness' to what is being said. Just provide us with it and your professional career documents and the rest. The Parts of Speech All words in the English language can be classified as one of the eight different parts of speech. Understanding the different parts of speech is important in understanding how words can and should be joined together to make sentences that are both grammatically correct and readable. Reason to Remember. ) a summary of the three main points from the body of the essay. The commercial uses the famous speech that first introduced the problem of smoking and what it does to our health. Explore a big database of【FREE Freedom of Speech Essay Examples】 All popular types of essays Persuasive, Definition, Argumentative & Research Papers. Explain the parts of a problem-cause-solution speech. Whether you want to get people to vote, stop littering, or change their minds about an important issue, persuasive speeches are an effective way to sway an audience. One example is the TeacherTube video of. Creates some effective imagery through language. Tone of voice demonstrates some attempt to be persuasive Speaks with clarity and confidence to the target audience; Persuasive tone is very evident throughout Speaks clearly, with. A recent study conducted by the University of Colorado Boulder's Leeds School of Business found that, as part of a class research project, it was discovered that 21 of 90 dating websites did not properly remove location data from photos uploaded by their users. In this accident, the leading cause of death is people under the age of 35 years old. What is a Persuasive Speech? Persuasive Speechesare meant to influence the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and values. Learn about a Topic. Here, arguments and opinions are laid out in the most strategic way in order to let the crowd easily accept them. Learning to identify each part of speech is essential to mastering how to write standard English. Project Goal: The goal of this project is to choose a position, research both sides of the subject matter, and prepare and write a persuasive speech that is geared towards OPPONENTS Save Paper; 2. consist of the following elements. It cannot be broad or concrete. Attention getter for persuasive speech on school uniforms. Persuasive Speech Example. Persuasive Speech. You are strongly encouraged to use Monroe's Motivated Sequence (pp. Also, since it is a persuasive speech, you have to take a stand on the topic. The first 10 to 20 seconds of your presentation is the time when you have the most attention. Abortion Persuasive Speech. The secret lies in following the advice of Aristotle, breaking down the essential elements of persuasion into three parts: (1) logos or logic, (2) ethos or ethic, and (3) pathos or emotion. Beyond that, there are a few more tricks that one can use to enhance one's skills quickly. Fear of Public Speaking. There is a certain general format that all persuasive speeches follow. This unit includes many different hands-on student activities and culminates in the presentation of a persuasive speech. The art of the persuasive speech is now a vital part of teaching students not only how to present ideas and arguments effectively but also how to communicate in general. Persuasive Communication is a unique compilation with a three-part focus: persuasion, writing, and speaking. The first component is that the university should adopt a policy of snow removal similar to the ordinance that the city of Madison has. The first, and most serious, is legal punishment by the state, which usually consists of a financial penalty, but can stretch to imprisonment (which then, of course, further restricts the persons free speech). Easy to understand. Creates some effective imagery through language. General Purpose: To convince Specific Purpose: To convince my audience that partial birth abortion is an unnecessary killing of a baby and should be made illegal. In this category, you can mention the importance of the topic in detail, with a lot of facts and cited data supporting your say. A hiked football and divisive and worrisome time. Primarily devised as part of preparation for GCSE English Language exams for both reading and writing non-fiction. Listen to what they have to say before choosing your response from a list of possible alternatives. Student speeches are able to more efficiently contain the two essential parts of a speech, statement and proof. Recognize that the audience is constantly processing what the speaker is saying. org team to pick your unique sample of a speech topic. fellow vegans,For my speech class at school we are doing persuasive speeches, and I of course chose to speak about why people should be vegetarian (not vegan because I know people in the class probably won't even consider veganism :( better to ease them in with vegetarianism. What are the strategies for organizing persuasive speeches? You'll need to answer questions about this and other topics to pass this multiple-choice quiz, which will. First, if you are planning a persuasive speech, you should think about a topic that can engage your audience. Buy a Persuasive Speech Written by Skilled Writers. The problem can be solved by offering nurses better salaries and better working conditions. The topic and thesis statement of a persuasive speech are both key parts of the speech. One focus of persuasion is the question of fact. Persuasive speaking is very connected to the audience, as the speaker must, in a sense, meet the audience halfway. In 2009, this lesson became a feature at the NNWP's Persuasive Writing Inservice Class for Teachers. It's now known as Monroe's Motivated Sequence. What is the purpose/objective of the speech? 6. One of the most important parts of persuasive essays or speeches is to convince and persuade the people about what you mean to say. A persuasive speech is one that: Establishes a fact Changes a belief Moves an audience to act on a policy. claim synonyms, claim pronunciation, claim translation, English dictionary definition of claim. Adverbs answer the questions how, where, or when. What is a Persuasive Speech? Persuasive Speechesare meant to influence the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and values. Persuasive Speech Parts Explained. Explore a big database of【FREE Freedom of Speech Essay Examples】 All popular types of essays Persuasive, Definition, Argumentative & Research Papers. Students can study current theory and research in persuasion while sharpening their research, writing, and speaking skills. So, I held up my end of that, and presented third. Another method is to insert the important parts at the beginning or end of your speech. What are the four parts of a persuasive essay? Asked by Anonymous on 8th March, 2010. This is the most important part of your speech. An individual ought to consider some factors when selecting good persuasive speech topics for college. Body Review- restates main arguments, restates thesis, call to action. Pet adoptions, animal shelters, help to find lost dogs and services to find lost cats. Main Points: I. Persuasive Speech Outline So Why Should We Recycle?We will write a custom essay on Recycling Persuasive Essay specifically for you for only $16. Step 2: Build the Need/Want-- In this step, you will work to get your audience to feel a need or want,. Primarily devised as part of preparation for GCSE English Language exams for both reading and writing non-fiction. As it is one of our top pages we wanted to give even more persuasive speech topic ideas. Practice and prepare to present your material as effectively as possible. Hundreds of books and entire courses are devoted to persuasion. If you would like to get a great custom written essay, order it from us today. This is a clear paraphrase of the topic combining with a short answer to all parts of the assignment. Reason to Remember. On the main website of the academic essay writing company, you will find all services nicely categorized. To deliver a great persuasive speech, you need to pick a topic. Persuasive Essay The Conclusion Paragraph The First Part: The Second Part: The Third Part: Sample Essay There are three parts: Restate the thesis Restate your two reasons Call to Action Now Write It! Conclusion Paragraph 1. Heckle entails herself. Understand the reader or the target audience. It provides all the guidelines as well to write an impressive introduction for a persuasive essay. Download Free Informative and Persuasive Speech Topics. Persuasive speech is a speech dedicated to some focused topic ideas where a student has a stand and persuades listeners to accept this stand as well. Speech recognition is the interdisciplinary subfield of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. Other factors, such as age, gender and educational level, also may play a part in writing a persuasive memo. A persuasive speech begins by writing a carefully crafted outline that directly addresses your audience and keeps their attention. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: